India revamps it’s education policy after 34 years. The Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD) renamed as Ministry of Education (ME).
On 29 July 2020, the Union Cabinet approves the New Education Policy (NEP-2020) which aims to overhaul the country’s education system. The announcement of NEP-2020 is made by the Minister of Information and Broadcasting (I&B) Prakash Javadekar and Minister of Human Resource Development (HRD) Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank. Earlier, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had reviewed the NEP- 2020 draft on May 1, the draft was prepared by a panel of former Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief K Kasturirangan. The main objective of NEP-2020 is making “India a global knowledge superpower” and provides rote free learning. It is assuming that the new academic session will begin in September-October of 2020, due to the Covid-19 outbreak the government aims to introduce the New Education Policy before the new academic session starts.
Fundamental Principles New Education Policy (NEP) – 2020
- Recognizing, identifying, and fostering the unique capabilities of each student, by sensitizing teachers and parents to promote each student’s holistic development.
- Accord the highest priority to achieving Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by all students by Grade 3.
- Flexibility for learners to choose their learning trajectories and programme, and thereby choose their own paths in life according to their talents and interests.
- No hard separations between arts and sciences, between vocational and academic streams, etc. to eliminate harmful hierarchies among, and silos between different areas of learning.
- Multi-disciplinarity and holistic education across the sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, and sports to ensure unity and integrity of all knowledge.
- Emphasis on conceptual understanding rather than rote learning and learning for exams.
- Creativity and critical thinking to encourage logical decision-making and innovation.
- Ethics, human and Constitutional values like empathy, respect for others, cleanliness courtesy, democratic spirit, the spirit of service, respect for public property, scientific temper, liberty, responsibility, pluralism, equality and justice.
- Promoting multilingualism and the power of language in teaching and learning.
- Life skills such as communication, cooperation, teamwork and resilience.
- Focus on regular formative assessment for learning rather than the summative assessment that encourages today’s coaching culture.
- Extensive use of technology in teaching and learning, removing language barriers, increasing access for Divyang Students.
- Respect for diversity and respect for the local context in all curriculum, pedagogy, and policy, always keeping in mind that education is a concurrent subject.
- Full equity and inclusion as the cornerstone of all educational decisions to ensure that all students are able to thrive in the education system.
- Synergy in curriculum across all levels of education from early childhood care and education to school to higher education.
- Teacher and faculty as the heart of the learning process – their recruitment, continuous professional development, positive working environment and service conditions.
- A ‘light but tight‘ regulatory framework to ensure integrity, transparency and resource efficiency of the educational system through audit and public disclosure while encouraging innovation and out-of-the-box ideas through autonomy, good governance and empowerment.
- Outstanding research as a corequisite for outstanding education and development.
- Continuous review of progress based on sustained research and regular assessment by educational experts.
- A rootedness and pride in India and its rich, diverse, ancient and modern culture and knowledge system and traditions.
- Education is a public service; access to quality education must be considered a basic right of every child.
- Substantial investment in a strong, vibrant public education system as well as the encouragement and facilitation of true philanthropic private and community participation.
Optimal Learning Environment And Support For Students
- Institutions and faculty will have the autonomy to innovate on matters of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment within a board framework of higher education.
- All assessment system shall also be decided by the HEI, including those that lead to final certification. The Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) will be revised for instilling innovation and flexibility.
- HEIs shall move to a criterion-based grading system that assesses student achievement based on the learning goals for each programme.
- HEIs shall move away from high-stakes examinations towards more continuous and comprehensive evaluation.
- Each institution will integrate its academic plans ranging from curricular improvement to quality of classroom transaction – into its larger Institutional Development Plan (IPD).
- Norms, standards and guidelines for systemic development, regulation and accreditation of ODL will be prepared and a framework for quality of ODL that will be recommendatory for all HEIs will be developed.
- All programmes, courses, curricula and pedagogy across subjects, including those in-class, online and in ODL modes, as well as student support, will aim to achieve global standards of quality.
Towards A More Holistic And Multidisciplinary Education
- Aim to develop all capacities of human beings – intellectual, aesthetic, social, physical, emotional and moral in an integrated manner.
- Holistic education shall be the approach of all undergraduate programmes, including those in professional, technical and vocational disciplines.
- Even engineering institutions, such as IITs, will move towards more holistic and multidisciplinary education with more arts and humanities.
- Imaginative and flexible curricular structures will enable creative combinations of disciplines for study and would offer multiple entry and exits points.
- Curricula of all HEIs shall include credit-based courses and projects in the areas of the community was engagement and service, environmental education and value-based education.
- The undergraduate degree will be of either 3 or 4-year duration, with multiple multiple exit options within this period, with appropriate certifications.
- Certificate after completing 1-year in a discipline or field including vocational and professional areas.
- Diploma after 2-years of study or a Bachelor’s degree after a 3-year programme.
- The 4-year multidisciplinary Bachelor’s programme, however, shall be the preferred option.
- An Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) shall be established which would digitally store the academic credits earned from various recognized HEIs.
- The 4-year programme may also lead to a degree ‘With Research‘ if the student completes a rigorous research project in their major area(s) of study as specified by the HEI.
- Model public universities for holistic and multidisciplinary education, at par with IITs, IIMs, etc., called MERUs (Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities) will be set up and will aim to attain the highest global standards in quality education.
- HEIs will focus on research and innovation by setting up start-up incubation centres, technology development centres, centres in frontier areas ofresearch, greater industry-academoc linkages and interdisciplinary research including humanities and social sciences research.
Institutional Restructuring And Consolidation
- BY 2040, all HEIs shall aim to become multidisciplinary institutions, each will aim to have 3,000 or more students.
- By 2030, at least one large multidisciplinary HEI in or near every district.
- Aim to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education including vocational from 26.3% (2018) to 50% by 2030.
- Growth will be in both public and private institutions, with a strong emphasis on developing a large number of outstanding public institutions.
- A university will mean a multidisciplinary institution of higher learning that offers undergraduate and graduate programmes, with high-quality teaching, research and community engagement.
- The definition of the university will allow a spectrum of institutions that range from those that place equal emphasis on:
- Teaching and research i.e., Research-intensive Universities.
- Teaching but still conduct significant research i.e., Teaching-intensive universities.
- Autonomous degree-granting College (AC) will refer to a large multidisciplinary that grants undergraduate degrees and are primarily focused on undergraduate teaching.
- A stage-wise mechanism for granting graded autonomy to colleges, through a transparent system of graded accreditation, will be established.
Institutional Restructuring And Consolidation
- HEIs will have the autonomy and freedom to move gradually from one category to another, based on their plans, actions and effectiveness.
- These three board types of institutions are not in any natural way a rigid, exclusionary categorization, but are along a continuum.
- HEIs will support other HEIs in their development, community engagement and services, contribution to various fields of practice, faculty development for the higher education system and support to school education.
- Institutions will have the option to run Open Distance Learning (ODL) online programmes, provided they are accredited to do so.
- Single-stream HEIs will be phased out over time and all will move towards becoming vibrant multidisciplinary institutions or parts of vibrant multidisciplinary HEI clusters.
- the system of ‘affiliated colleges‘ will be gradually phased out over a period of 15 years through a system of graded autonomy and to be carried out in a challenge mode.
- The overall higher education sector will aim to be an integrated higher education system, including professional and vocational education.
- The present complex nomenclature of HEIs in the country such as ‘deemed to be university‘, ‘affiliating universities‘, ‘affiliating technical university‘, ‘unitary university‘ shall be replaced simply by ‘university‘ on fulfilling the criteria as per norms.
A new and forward looking vision
- Aim to develop good, thoughtful, well-rounded and creative individuals.
- Enables an individual to study one or more specialized areas of interest and also develop character, ethical and Constitutional values, intellectual curiosity, scientific temper, creativity, the spirit of service and 21st-century capabilities across disciplines as well as professional, technical and vocational subjects.
- Enable personal accomplishment and enlightenment, constructive public engagement and productive contribution to the society.
- Prepare students for more meaningful and satisfying lives and work roles and enable economic independence.
Some of the major problems currently faced by the higher education system in India include:
- A severely fragmented higher education ecosystem.
- Less emphasis on the development of cognitive skills and learning outcomes.
- A rigid separation of disciplines, with early specialisation and streaming of students into narrow areas of study.
- Limited access particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged areas, with few HEIs that teach in local languages.
- Limited teacher and institutional autonomy.
- Inadequate mechanisms for merit-based career management and progression of faculty and institutional leaders.
- Lesser emphasis on research at most universities and colleges, and lack of competitive peer-reviewed research funding across disciplines.
- Suboptimal governance and leadership of HEIs: An ineffective regulatory system.
- large affiliating universities resulting is low standards of undergraduate education.
This policy envisions the following key changes to the current system:
- Moving towards multidisciplinary universities and colleges with more HEIs across India that offer a medium of instruction in local/Indian languages.
- Moving towards a more multidisciplinary undergraduate education.
- Moving towards faculty and institutional autonomy.
- Revamping curriculum, pedagogy, assessment and student support.
- Reaffirming the integrity of faculty and institutional leadership positions.
- Establishment of a National Research Foundation.
- Governance of HEIs by independent boards having academic and administrative autonomy.
- ‘Light but tight‘ regulation by a single regulator for higher education.
- Increased access, equity and inclusion.
Revolutionising Education With A Holistic Vision
- An education system rooted in Indian ethos that contributes directly to transforming India, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society, by providing high-quality education to all.
- The curriculum and pedagogy of our institutions must develop a deep sense of respect towards the Constitutional values, bonding with one’s country and conscious awareness of roles and responsibilities.
- To instil a deep-rooted pride in being Indian and to develop knowledge, skill, values and dispositions that support responsible commitment to human rights, sustainable development and living and global well-being, reflecting a truly global citizen.
News Source : MyGovIndia